DISEASES OF THE LIVER AND GALL-BLADDER: DISTURBANCES OF

GALL-BLADDER AND GALL DUCTS

1. The inflammatory gall-bladder disturbances are recognised by a lightening of colour in the gall-bladder area—white lines or wisps. It is usually a question of an inflammation extending from the intestine, as already stated in connection with inflammatory states of the liver, going out from the duodenum, and extending in proportion to the disturbance as far as the liver. Usually only white lines are seen = pain lines.

2. Gallstones themselves do not, of course, register in the iris. However, their presence can be presumed when small dark spots are seen in the gall-bladder area. Gallstones lead readily to inflammation and to gall stasis.

3. Fine white, generally serrated, lines indicate the tendency to colic. The same tendency is also indicated by nerve rings which interrupt in the gall-bladder and gall duct areas.

4. Not infrequently, one finds the gall-bladder and liver areas displaced in profile to about

41′-42′. Patients who have this sign are tainted by hereditary disease. Among their antecedents there must have been alcoholism. We must also remember here that diseases which show the organ signs displaced in profile, are either not healed at all or only with great difficulty.

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